Inclusive Design Studios
Rethinking the Instructor’s Role
The culture of the architectural design studio continues, in large part, to be based on centuries old traditions. Research on teaching, learning and bias suggest, however, that a rethinking of these traditions is long overdue if we aim to create inclusive learning environments and diversify our profession. Drawing on recent research on the cultivation of expertise, student motivation and stereotype threat, this essay considers how we might rethink design studio instruction. Studies on the development of expertise suggest a critical re-imagining of the instructor’s role in design studios. Research on student motivation suggests that many of the traditional practices of architectural education inevitably leave students unmotivated and need to be reconsidered. Finally, research on the ways in which stereotypes impact academic performance illuminate some of the roadblocks to diversifying our classrooms and profession. This essay shares evidence-based strategies to address these roadblocks and traditions to develop a more inclusive and effective design studio culture.
Adamczyk, Alicia. 2019. “Gen Z prioritizes making money and having a successful career.” CNBC. July 18, 2019. https://www.cnbc.com/2019/07/18/gen-z-prioritizes-making-money-and-having-a-successful-career.html.
Adams, Robin S., Monica Cardella, and Şenay Purzer. 2016a. "Special issue: design review conversa-tions". Design Studies. 45. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.destud.2016.03.001
Adams, Robin S., Tiago Forin, Mel Chua, and David Radcliffe. 2016b. "Characterizing the work of coach-ing during design reviews". Design Studies. 45: 30-67. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.destud.2015.12.007
Ambrose, Susan A., Michael W. Bridges, Michele DiPietro, Marsha C. Lovett, Marie K. Norman, and Richard E. Mayer. 2010. How Learning Works: Seven Research-Based Principles for Smart Teaching. 1 edi-tion. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Anthony, Kathryn H. 2012. Design juries on trial. 20th anniversary edition: The Renaissance of the Design Studio. Kathryn H. Anthony.
Beed, P., M. Hawkins, & C. Roller. 1991. Moving learners towards independence: the power of scaf-folded instruction. The Reading Teacher, 44(9), 648–655.
Brody, J., K. Lewis, A. Schump, L. Ewanow, J. Hunt, J. 2017. “Staging innovation in first year design peda-gogy: The K-state experience.” Proceedings of the Thirty-third National Conference on the Beginning Design Student, Utah, USA, pgs. 52-55.
Choi, Rebecca Meejoo. 2020. Black Architectures: Race, Pedagogy, and Practice, 1957-68. https://escholarship.org/uc/item/1hf2k57z.
Cillizza, Chris. 2015. Washington Post. n.d. “Millenni-als don’t trust anyone. That’s a big deal.” Accessed January 3, 2022. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-fix/wp/2015/04/30/millennials-dont-trust-anyone-what-else-is-new/.
Criss, Shannon. 2018. “Shaping new forms of citizenry through community co-creation and participatory design processes.” Association of Collegiate Schools of Architecture 106th Annual Meeting Proceeding, The Ethical Imperative. https://doi.org/10.35483/ACSA.AM.106.11
Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly. 1996. Creativity: Flow and the Psychology of Discovery and Invention. 1st ed. New York: Harper Collins Publishers.
Dobbins, Tom. 2018. “AJ student survey results pose a worrying question: is architecture becoming an elitist subject?” ArchDaily. Accessed January 3, 2022. https://www.archdaily.com/899044/aj-student-survey-results-pose-a-worrying-question-is-architecture-becoming-an-elitist-subject
Ericsson, Anders, and Robert Pool. 2016. Peak: Se-crets from the New Science of Expertise. 1 edition. Bos-ton: Eamon Dolan/Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
Galil, R. A., & Kandil, Y. 2015. INDIFFERENT OR DEVOT-ED: AN EXPLORATION OF STUDENT IDENTITY THROUGH THE DESIGN STUDIO. Open House Interna-tional, 40(2), 96-101. https://doi.org/10.1108/OHI-02-2015-B0013
Gibbs College of Architecture, University of Oklaho-ma. 2020. Taking Action to Create an Anti-Racist, Di-verse and Equitable Community. https://gibbs.oucreate.com/environmental-design/gibbs-college-taking-action-to-create-an-anti-racist-diverse-equitable-community/.
Masdéu, Marta, and Josep Fuses. 2017. “Reconceptu-alizing the Design Studio in Architectural Education: Distance Learning and Blended Learning as Trans-formation Factors.” ArchNet - IJAR: International Jour-nal of Architectural Research, no. 2 (July): 6–23. https://doi.org/10.26687/archnet-ijar.v11i2.1156
McLaughlan, Rebecca, and Ishita Chatterjee. 2020. “What Works in the Architecture Studio? Five Strate-gies for Optimising Student Learning.” International Journal of Art & Design Education 39 (3): 550–64. doi:10.1111/jade.12303. https://doi.org/10.1111/jade.12303
Nicholson, Kendall. 2020a. “Where Are My People? Black in Architecture.” Association of Collegiate Schools of Architecture (blog). Accessed January 3, 2022. https://www.acsa-arch.org/resources/data-resources/where-are-my-people-black-in-architecture/.
Nicholson, Kendall. 2020b “Where Are My People? Hispanic and Latinx in Architecture.” Association of Collegiate Schools of Architecture (blog). Accessed January 3, 2022. https://www.acsa-arch.org/resources/data-resources/where-are-my-people-hispanic-latinx-in-architecture/.
Pruitt, Evan and David Kratzer. 2018. “Creating Equi-table Learning Environments in Architectural Studio Courses.” Association of Collegiate Schools of Archi-tecture 106th Annual Meeting Proceeding, The Ethical Imperative. https://doi.org/10.35483/ACSA.AM.106.65
Reddit. N.d. “Sad architecture student.” Accessed January 3, 2022. https://www.reddit.com/r/simpleliving/comments/7pgcst/sad_architecture_student/.
Steele, Claude. 2010. Whistling Vivaldi: And Other Clues to How Stereotypes Affect Us. New York: WW Norton & Company.
van Diggelen, M. R., K. I. Doulougeri, S. M. Gomez-Puente, G. Bombaerts, K. J. H. Dirkx, and R. J. A. Kamp. 2021. “Coaching in Design-Based Learning: A Grounded Theory Approach to Create a Theoretical Model and Practical Propositions.” International Journal of Technology & Design Education 31 (2): 305–24.
Williams, Joan C., Rachel M. Korn, and Rachel Mass. 2021. “The Elephant in the (Well-Designed) Room.” AIA and Center for WorkLife Law, University of Cali-fornia, Hastings College of the Law. https://content.aia.org/sites/default/files/2021-12/AIA_Bias_Interrupters_FINAL.pdf
Copyright (c) 2022 Stephanie Z Pilat, Dr. Person
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal which is under a Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International license (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0).
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).