ENQUIRY: The ARCC Journal https://arcc-journal.org/index.php/arccjournal An open access e-journal on architectural research Architectural Research Centers Consortium en-US ENQUIRY: The ARCC Journal 2329-9339 <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:<br><br></p> <ol type="a"> <ol type="a"> <li class="show">Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a&nbsp;<a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Creative Commons Attribution License</a> that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal which is under a Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International license (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0).</li> </ol> </ol> <p>&nbsp;</p> <ol type="a"> <ol type="a"> <li class="show">Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li> </ol> </ol> <p>&nbsp;</p> <ol type="a"> <li class="show">Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See&nbsp;<a href="http://opcit.eprints.org/oacitation-biblio.html" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li> </ol> Land Use and Transport Mode choices: Space Syntax Analysis of American Cities https://arcc-journal.org/index.php/arccjournal/article/view/429 <p>Natural movement theory (from space syntax literature) postulates that configuration of the urban grid is an important generator of aggregate patterns of movement in urban areas (Hillier et al. 1993). In addition, movement economy theory asserts that retail and commercial activities migrate to configurationally hotspot locations to take advantage of the economic opportunities created by movement (Hillier 1996). These concentrations of retail and commercial activities are also the work places for a good number of people and in turn, will influence the choices of residential locations. Since journey-distance and time are two very important factors influencing transport mode choice, (Plaut 2005; Wardman, Tight, and Page 2007; Pucher and Dijkstra 2003; Schwanen and Mokhtarian 2005). This paper hypothesized that the locations of retails and commercial areas <em>as understood by their space syntax derived configurational index</em>, will first affect the choices of residential locations and also influence choices of commuting mode.</p> <p>This hypothesis is tested in four US cities of Boston, Pittsburgh, Lubbock, and Salt Lake City using data collected from online open source database of the respective cities and US census bureau. Space Syntax topological and angular analyses of CAD drawn axial lines and street centerlines extracted from GIS maps are performed for all cities. ArcGIS spatial analysis tools were applied to combine land use, socio-economic &amp; demographic, transportation and Space Syntax variables to the scale of census block-groups that was selected as the study unit. Multiple regression analyses are carried out to identify relevant and significant variables explaining each mode of transport. The findings indicate that Space Syntax variables play an important role in explaining choice of commuting mode. In addition, several linear regression analyses are performed to examine the land use and transport mode choice in the context of street configuration. The results indicate that commercial and retail concentration were positively correlated with integration cores. Following general trend of space syntax findings, commuters tend to live at configurationally segregated areas while walkers and bicycle riders tend to live in configurationally integrated areas where commercial and retail activities are concentrated. Regarding the differences of layout types, the results of comparative analysis between gridded and non-gridded cities indicates that closeness variable called ‘integration’ and between-ness variable called ‘choice’ are relevant to explain walking and driving modes in non-gridded and gridded cities respectively.</p> Girmay Kifle Berhie Saif Haq ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-12-13 2017-12-13 14 1 1 22 10.17831/enq:arcc.v14i1.429 Women’s Satisfaction of Daylight in Contemporary Jeddah’s Flats https://arcc-journal.org/index.php/arccjournal/article/view/424 <p>For inhabitants of residential buildings in Saudi Arabia, daylight levels are generally considered to be sufficient (Dahlan and Mohamed 2010). While there are a number of studies that analyse the light conditions as a general parameter for dwellers in cities (Boubekri 2008, Edwards and Torcellini 2002, Gou, Lau, and Qian 2013, Kim and Kim 2010), there seems to be a lack of attention to the specific case of women. In their lifetime, women spend considerable time inside homes. Moreover, the window is an architectural element that embodies a complex combination of religious, cultural, and environmental questions in Saudi Arabia. This study examines women satisfaction with daylight level in their living space in middle class residential flats in Jeddah. Twenty three women between the ages 20-50 who live in contemporary flats in Jeddah were interviewed in semi-structure interviews. This research examines women’s real use of daylight in their homes, by questioning the general understanding that daylight is provided at a sufficient level. This paper provides an insight into women’s satisfaction with regards to the daylight provided in their daily life by demonstrating qualitative evidence.  Results strongly indicates that women are not satisfied with daylight due to many reasons according to window location and glass type. This research seeks to make significant contribution to the gap in knowledge regarding women and daylight in Saudi culture that requires high level of privacy.</p> Alaa Shatwan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-12-13 2017-12-13 14 1 23 36 10.17831/enq:arcc.v14i1.424 Evaluating the Utility Core in the Prefabricated Building Industry – past, present and future https://arcc-journal.org/index.php/arccjournal/article/view/426 Harnessing, distributing, tempering and supplying water, heat and power in a building produces its share of design, technical and coordination issues. Specifically, the relationship between hygiene and cooking functions and architecture has been underscored by even the most ancient civilizations as these services give a building its potential to serve and showcase architecture’s hospitality. The relationship between services and architectural space has long challenged designers and manufacturers to streamline their piecing together. Throughout construction history and modern architecture in particular the wet service core or utility core sought to organize an efficient way of zoning services, their production and construction integration; The utility core epitomized this rationalization within a self-contained engine-like device positioned to serve the entire dwelling. This paper proposes an extensive review of literature and practical exploration in order to detect new potentials for designing integrated, technology-driven, flexible and adaptable prefabricated utility cores for today’s industry. The core was intended as a hub accommodating mechanical and technological equipment; electrical services, plumbing fixtures, water supply, drain, waste, vent piping, telephone cables, and easy connections to site infrastructure. Today’s techniques and building information modeling allows the core to be redefined in relation to multiple scales and various organizational possibilities with regard to space/function connections. Further an adaptable core articulated to the «open building» theoretical framework of layering systems to avoid entanglement and to maximize durability, can be part of a comprehensive strategy to enable customization. The vast amount of literature and precedents contribute to a robust historic narrative of two distinct approaches of architectural rhetoric and industrial production.  This paper will endeavor to illustrate this narrative and evaluate the potentials for achieving broader application. Carlo Carbone Basem Eid Mohamed ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-12-17 2017-12-17 14 1 37 47 10.17831/enq:arcc.v14i1.426 Architecture within a circular economy: Process mapping a resource-based design-bid-build project delivery system https://arcc-journal.org/index.php/arccjournal/article/view/432 <p>In this paper, we develop a novel method for integrating system thinking into architectural design by mapping its processes in a standard process modeling language. We structured a decision-support framework using process mapping workflows to incorporate sustainable building materials and resource-based design decisions into the architectural practice. We turned to other disciplines’ knowledgebases, such as Business Information Technology (BIT), to develop a workflow for the Design-Bid-Build project delivery method (DBB). Mapping both current and the proposed design processes, including their activities, workflow, and decision nodes, was critical in defining roles, flow of information, and subsequent decisions. In this study, we utilized a qualitative methodology to capture the required knowledge from industry experts in resource-based design and then integrated our findings into a set of process maps to support the materials decisions by the architectural project team. This study establishes a system of information exchange to support the growth of the newly emerging industry of reuse stores and vendors. Through numerous interviews and knowledge capturing sessions with industry experts from the building material reuse industry that acknowledged an absence of a "system of information exchange."  It is through this study that an overall system of information exchange will connect the links between the reuse industry and the AEC industry. The primary outcome of this study is a structured process for design with resource reuse. This process will redefine the DBB traditional design process by introducing new procedures, define information exchange and identify key decisions within the proposed processes, define responsibilities and identify key stakeholders. The author conducted an extensive multi-year knowledge capturing process with constructive feedback from the industry experts.</p> Ahmed Kamal Ali ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-12-17 2017-12-17 14 1 48 61 10.17831/enq:arcc.v14i1.432