ENQUIRY: The ARCC Journal 2019-02-19T11:11:02-05:00 Philip Plowright Open Journal Systems An open access e-journal on architectural research Figuration as Participation. Notes on Álvaro Siza’s Architecture as Representation 2019-02-19T11:11:02-05:00 Fabio Colonnese <p>Although in the wake of the Modern Movement tradition, Álvaro Siza Vieira’s architectural research moves along the thin red line between abstraction and representation. The apparent arbitrariness of some of his compositions, widely analyzed in typological and social key, is primarily an expression of his attention to the moving subject that never translates into illusory devices. Yet, in the last two decades of the 20th century, anthropomorphic and zoomorphic presences began to haunt his architectures, addressing to new meanings. The keys to understanding this phase of Siza’s creative trajectory reside in his hypertrophic graphic activity, in his production as a designer and, most of all, as a sculptor. On one hand, his sketches reveal the tension and negotiation between architecture body and human body, which to some extent constitute the extremes of his formal investigation. On the other hand, his objects and sculptures result as intermediate moments of experimentation and clarification by responding the ergonomic demands through the semantic economy of <em>objet trouvée</em>. Through them, Siza’s architectural anthropomorphism can be interpreted as a moment of transition towards an <em>architecture parlant</em>, which relies on the connotative participation of people to put in scene no longer figures or characters but interactions and feelings: the opportunity of a meeting.</p> 2018-09-04T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Dimensions of Use 2019-02-19T11:11:02-05:00 David Fannon Michelle Laboy Peter Wiederspahn <p>Dimension—the measure of extent—is the technical means and manifestation of human use embedded in architecture. Beginning in the enlightenment historic, proportional relationships between humans and architectural dimension evolved into precise measurements, becoming by the modern era indicators of efficiency, performance, and standardization. Today, the architectural dimension has become deterministic; driven by stringent codes, standards, and benchmarks tied to building program. Divorced from their originating logics and consequences on human occupation, the dimensional standards and requirements abstract people into loads or clearances: separating buildings from human experience and use. Examining dimension’s entanglement with practice and technology to provide shelter for human use illuminates the ways architecture has been thought about and the ways it is used over time. By tracing the changing concepts, metrics, standards, and technologies of architectural measurement, this article reveals the sometimes overlooked or disconnected values and considerations of <em>use</em> in the theory of architectural technology. This research points towards critical approaches to design based on human use, reframing building performance towards an architectural dimension of inhabitation; one that avoids standardization and reasserts human users as the measure of building.</p> 2018-11-29T19:40:52-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Quasi-periodic Geometry for Architectural Acoustics 2019-02-19T11:11:02-05:00 Rima Ajlouni <p>The discovery of quasi-periodic atomic order in the crystalline state has uncovered an exciting new class of symmetries that has never been explored before. Because of their non-periodic translational order and self-similar properties, quasi-periodic structures offer unique opportunities for investigating questions related to their acoustical behavior. Their unique long-range non-periodic formations have the ability to diffuse and orchestrate the flow of sound energy in many unique ways; offering intriguing potential for innovating a new wave of optimized sound diffusers. One key limitation with available periodic diffusers is that their repeating logic creates repetitive energy loops, which significantly reduce their ability to uniformly disperse sound energy. Quasi-periodic geometry can mitigate such limitation. By encapsulating an infinite variety of distinct profiles in all directions, quasi-periodic surfaces can eliminate the formation of bundled or looped reflections; considerably enhancing the ability of the diffuser to uniformly disperse sound energy. To investigate this hypothesis, an experimental approach is used to simulate sound reflection patterns of the quasi-periodic surface profiles using a ray tracing method. Both qualitative and quantitative analyses are used to interpret the simulated results. The international Standards (ISO) metrics are used to validate the proposed approach and verify the results. Results show that the diffusion quality of the tested quasi-periodic surface is superior to the diffusion performance of the tested periodic surface.</p> 2018-12-18T16:43:31-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Design, development, and public health 2019-02-19T11:11:01-05:00 Traci Rose Rider Margaret van Bakergem Jinoh Park Xi Wang J. Aaron Hipp <p>As awareness of the built environment’s impact on individual and community health spreads through design and construction, different stakeholders are engaging in conversations of strategies and metrics. This paper explores the structure, methodology, and findings of research supported by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation addressing how multifamily developers conceptualize, discuss and implement health strategies in their projects.</p> <p>Framed in a Critical Theory perspective, this research first explores the traditional multifamily development decision-making process, specifically targeting how early adopters in multifamily development are discussing health and wellness in their projects. By unpacking the discussions around health and wellbeing in design, real estate development, and public health, aligned concepts are identified to operationalize these concepts for further exploration.</p> <p>Using a comparative case study strategy addressing <em>how</em> and <em>why</em> (Yin 2017), five developers positioned as early adopters were engaged to better understand how they each conceptualize, implement and measure health strategies in their multifamily projects. Two-day in-depth interviews were held in two initial developers’ home offices, addressing their standard design and decision-making processes and evolving into specific consideration of various health strategies. Four additional developers were engaged either over the phone or in person. Interview protocol ensured that discussion topics were standardized at the outset, with the following topics addressed with each partner: (1) company mission, (2) organizational structure, (3) differentiation in the market, (4) company evaluation metrics, (5) assessment scales, (6) decision-making processes, (7) market trends, (8) use of evidence-based data, (9) internal health discussions, and (10) investor relationships. Cyclical data collection, transcription, and analysis allowed the interview protocol to be modified for emergent topics. Site visits, website analysis, and clicks through national online real estate databases also contributed to a holistic perspective of this complex problem.</p> <p>Findings indicate that multifamily developers are focusing on upfront, marketable strategies that are likely to foster mental and social health, but with little regard of applying any form of evaluative metrics. Rating systems addressing health are of little help. When asked directly about choices to influence the health of residents, participants heavily cited (1) location, emphasizing access to community amenities; (2) place making, for community building and social and mental wellbeing; and (3) physical fitness opportunities through fitness spaces. Even those developers viewed as early adopters are uncomfortable discussing health strategies using a public health lens. This research intends to highlight interdisciplinary conversations surrounding health in multifamily real estate, contributing to more rigorous adoption of health strategies in this challenging building type. These findings can be valuable to stakeholders in design, development, private investment, property management, public health, community design, and policy. &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> 2018-12-19T13:38:02-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##