Main Article Content
Rapprochement urbanism addresses how wild environments can be accommodated in urban spaces to create more sustainable and resilient cities. Referring to the dual realities of wilderness and urbanity, this design strategy explores the interaction of their two structures to replace the misconception that cities are built “on” the natural environment, with the assertion that cities are built “in” it. Jackson, Mississippi currently treats adjacent vibrant ecological habitats as forgotten back alleys rather than urban assets. Utilizing interventions within a holistic plan, rapprochement urbanism combats urban sprawl and “back alley” attitudes, mitigates stormwater challenges, and facilitates human and animal spatial needs. Rapprochement urbanism, through the rewilding of Jackson, MS, allows architects to more directly impact and improve the ecological sustainability of this city of 170,000 inhabitants.[i]
i“Jackson, Mississippi.” Jackson, Mississippi (MS) Profile: Population, Maps, Real Estate, Averages, Homes, Statistics, Relocation, Travel, Jobs,Hospitals, Schools, Crime, Moving, Houses, News, Sex Offenders. http://www.city-data.com/city/Jackson -Mississippi.html (Accessed November 01, 2018).
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal which is under a Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International license (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0).
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
Brady, Lisa M. 2005. “The Wilderness of War: Nature and Strategy in the American Civil War.” Environmental History 10, no. 3: 421-47. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3985998.
Burke, Edmund. 2016. A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of Our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful. Place of publication not identified: Scholar Select.
City of Jackson Zoning. 2018. Jackson, MS Zoning Ordinance. Jackson: City of Jackson, Mississippi, pp.42-44, 62, 74. https://doi.org/10.1353/plo.2018.0014
Claiborne County MSGenWeb: Accessed November 01, 2018. http://sites.rootsweb.com/~msclaib3/PeterVanDorn.htm.
Clevenger, A.P., et al. 2002. Roads and Wildlife in the Canadian Rocky Mountain Parks: Movements, Mortality and Mitigation. Report prepared for Parks Canada. Parks Canada, Banff, Alberta.
Clevenger, A.P., Nigel Waltho. 2005. “Performance Indices to Identify Attributes of Highway Crossing Structures Facilitating Movement of Large Mammals.” Biological Conservation 121: 453-464.
Clevenger, A.P., and N. Waltho. 2000. “Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Wildlife Underpasses in Banff National Park, Alberta, Canada.” Conservation Biology 14: 47–56. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1523-1739.2000.00099-085.x
Construction Equipment Guide. "In 1974, I-20 Bridge Completed MS's Interstate Construction." Accessed November 08, 2018. https://www.constructionequipmentguide.com/in-1974-i-20-bridge-completed-mss-interstate-construction/4016.
Cronon, William, ed. 2006. The Landscape Urbanism Reader. New York: Princeton Architectural, 42.
Denevan, William M. 1992. The Pristine Myth: The Landscape of the Americas in 1492, 1. Department of Geography 83, no. 3 October 25, 2016. https://www.jstor.org/stable/2563351?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents .
Donaldson, Bridget M. 2005. “The Use of Highway Underpasses by Large Mammals in Virginia and Factors Influencing Their Effectiveness.” Charlottesville, Virginia: Virginia Transportation Research Council.
Donaldson, Bridget M, and Dr. Maynard Schaus. March 2010. “An Evaluation of the U.S. Highway 17 Underpass in Chesapeake, Virginia, as a Wildlife Crossing .” Virginia Transportation Research Council. http://www.virginiadot.org/vtrc/main/online_reports/pdf/10-r10.pdf.
Downs, Joni, et al. 2014. “Strategically Locating Wildlife Crossing Structures for Florida Panthers Using Maximal Covering Approaches” Transactions in GIS 18 no. 1: 46-65.
"Ecological Site Description." Natural Resource Conservation Services. Accessed November 1, 2018. https://esis.sc.egov.usda.gov/ESDReport/fsReport.aspx?id=F134XY001TN&rptLevel=communities&approved=yes&repType=regular&scrns=&comm=.
Federal Emergency Management Agency. November 18, 2009. "FEMA Flood Map Service Center: Search By Address." View Map: View Your Chosen Flood Insurance Rate Map on the FIRMette Web Tool. Accessed January 24, 2018. https://msc.fema.gov/portal/search?AddressQuery=jackson%2Bms#searchresultsanchor.
Foreman, Dave. 1993. Confessions of an Eco Warrior. New York: Crown.
FOTG. “Natural Resource Information.” National resource Conservation Service. Accessed January 24, 2018. https://efotg.sc.egov.usda.gov/references/public/MS/MS_ecoregions.doc.
Hahn, Ekhart and Michael LaFond. 1997. “Local Agenda 21 and Ecological Urban Restructuring: An European Model Project in Lepzig” Sozialforschung, Forschungsschwerpunkt Techniik, Arbeit, Umwelt, Forschungsprofessur Umweltpolitik, no. FS II, 97-408.http://hdl.handle.net/10419/49558
Hetch Hetchy Water and Power System. November 01, 2018. tchistory. https://www.tchistory.org/tchistory/Wonders_10.htm.
Jacksongis.maps.arcgis.com. Accessed November 08, 2018. http://jacksongis.maps.arcgis.com/apps/View/index.html?appid=7e75e32b4ca24cbeaac149025b330a20.
Jackson, Mississippi. November 01, 2018. “Jackson, Mississippi (MS) Profile: Population, Maps, Real Estate, Averages, Homes, Statistics, Relocation, Travel, Jobs,Hospitals, Schools, Crime, Moving, Houses, News, Sex Offenders.” http://www.city-data.com/city/Jackson -Mississippi.html
"Jackson, Mississippi." Crime in Pine Bluff, Arkansas (AR): Murders, Rapes, Robberies, Assaults, Burglaries, Thefts, Auto Thefts, Arson, Law Enforcement Employees, Police Officers, Crime Map. Accessed November 08, 2018. http://www.city-data.com/city/Jackson-Mississippi.html.
Jackson, Mississippi [map]. 1885. Scale 50 ft to an inch. “Digital Sandborn Maps 1867-1970. Mississippiana Sanborn Fire Insurance Maps. Accessed January 24, 2018. http://sanborn.umi.com.proxy1.athensams.net/splash.html
Leopold, Aldo. 1989. A Sand County Almanac. Commemorative Edition. New York, New York: Oxford University Press.
Lynch, Kevin. 1960. The Image of the City. Cambridge, Massachusetts: M.I.T. Press. 3, 47.
Mann, Charles C. October 25, 2016. “1491,” Atlantic March 2002, http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2002/03/1491/302445/.
Matos, Grecia & Wagner, Lorie. 1998. “Consumption of materials in the United States, 1900-1995”. Annual Review of Energy and The Environment 23. 107-122.
Mech, L. David. 2003. The Wolf: The Ecology and Behavior of an Endangered Species. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.
Mississippi Museum of Natural Science. 1994. Endangered Species of Mississippi. Jackson, MS Mississippi Dept. of Wildlife, Fisheries & Parks, Museum of Natural Science.
Mississippi State University Extension Service. "White-Tailed Deer." Mississippi State University Extension Service. Accessed January 24, 2018. http://extension.msstate.edu/natural-resources/wildlife/white-tailed-deer.
Moore, Rebecca, Tiffany Williams, Eduardo Rodriguez, and Jeffery Hepinstall-Cymmerman. 2011. Quantifying the Value of Non-Timber Ecosystem Services from Georgia’s Private Forests. Georgia Forestry Foundation.
Muir, John. 1912. The Yosemite. The Project Gutenberg Ebook. January 5, 2010. 83. http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/7091
National Research Council. 2002. Sea Level Rise and Coastal Disasters: Summary of a Forum. October 25, 2001, Washington DC. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/10590.
Paine, R.T. 1995. “A Conversation on Refining the Concept of Keystone Species.” Conservation Biology 9, no. 4: 962–64. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1523-1739.1995.09040962.x.
Ripple, William J., and Robert L. Beschta, August 2004. “Wolves and the Ecology of Fear: Can Predation Risk Structure Ecosystems?”, BioScience 54, no. 8. 755-766. https://doi.org/10.1641/0006-3568(2004)054[0755:WATEOF]2.0.CO;2
Rosenzweig, Michael L. 2003. Win-win Ecology: How the Earth’s Species Can Survive in the Midst of Human Enterprise. Oxford: Oxford UP.
Schullery, Paul. 2003. The Yellowstone Wolf: A Guide and Sourcebook. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.
Selhub, Eva M., and Alan C. Logan. 2014. Your Brain on Nature: The Science of Natures Influence on Your Health, Happiness, and Vitality. Toronto: HarperCollins Publishers, Ltd.
Smith, Daniel Joseph. 2003. “Monitoring Wildlife Use and Determining Standards for Culvert Design.” Gainesville, Florida.
Thoreau, Henry D. 1862. “Walking” The Atlantic. https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/1862/06/walking/304674/.
Thoreau, Henry D. 1864. The Writings of Henry David Thoreau, Volume III (of 20): The Maine Woods. Boston, Houghton Mifflin & Co, MDCCCCVI: 70-77.
United States. Mississippi Department of Natural Resources. Bureau of Geology. 1988. Yazoo
Clay: Engineering Aspects and Environmental Geology of an Expansive Clay. By Curtis W. Stover, Ross D. Williams, and Charles O. M. Peel. Jackson, MS: Mississippi Dept. of Natural Resources, Bureau of Geology. http://www.deq.state.ms.us/mdeq.nsf/pdf/Geology_YazooClayEngineeringAspectsandEnvironmentalGeologyofanExpansiveClay/$File/Circular_1.pdf?OpenElement.
University of Florida - IFAS Extension. "Cypress Swamps." Florida Forest Stewardship – Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences Extension. Accessed January 24, 2018. http://www.sfrc.ufl.edu/Extension/florida_forestry_information/forest_resources/cypress_swamps.html.
Waldheim, Charles ed. 2006. The Landscape Urbanism Reader, 37-42. New York: Princeton Architectural.
Wilderness Society, The. The 88th United States Congress The Wilderness Act of 1964. By Marshall Clark, Alfred Giles, and David Perry. Austin, TX: LBJ School of Public Affairs, 1975.
Wildlands Network, The. 116th United States Congress, 1st Session Wildlife Corridors Conservation Act, Act of 2019. https://www.congress.gov/bill/116th-congress/senate-bill/1499/text.
“Wildlife Corridors Conservation Act.” Wildlands Network. Accessed October 8, 2019. https://wildlandsnetwork.org/policy/wildlife-corridors-conservation-act/.
Wilson, Edward O. 1984. Biophilia. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press.