Main Article Content
Although in the wake of the Modern Movement tradition, Álvaro Siza Vieira’s architectural research moves along the thin red line between abstraction and representation. The apparent arbitrariness of some of his compositions, widely analyzed in typological and social key, is primarily an expression of his attention to the moving subject that never translates into illusory devices. Yet, in the last two decades of the 20th century, anthropomorphic and zoomorphic presences began to haunt his architectures, addressing to new meanings. The keys to understanding this phase of Siza’s creative trajectory reside in his hypertrophic graphic activity, in his production as a designer and, most of all, as a sculptor. On one hand, his sketches reveal the tension and negotiation between architecture body and human body, which to some extent constitute the extremes of his formal investigation. On the other hand, his objects and sculptures result as intermediate moments of experimentation and clarification by responding the ergonomic demands through the semantic economy of objet trouvée. Through them, Siza’s architectural anthropomorphism can be interpreted as a moment of transition towards an architecture parlant, which relies on the connotative participation of people to put in scene no longer figures or characters but interactions and feelings: the opportunity of a meeting.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal which is under a Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International license (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0).
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
Angelillo, Antonio. 1997. Álvaro Siza. Scritti di architettura. Milano: Skira
Beaudouin, Laurent. 2008. “L’arpenteur.” In Álvaro Siza. Une question de mesure. Entretiens avec Dominique Machabert et Laurent Beaudouin, edited by Laurent Beaudouin, and Dominique Machabert, 13-21. Paris: Editions Le Moniteur
Caballero, Rosario. 2013. “The Role of Metaphor in Architects’ Negotiation and (Re)Construction of Knowledge Across Genres.” Metaphor and Symbol 28, no.1: 3–21. https://doi.org/10.1080/10926488.2013.742840
Castanheira, Carlos, Álvaro Siza, and Jun Sung Kim. 2008. “A cat has become a museum.” El Croquis 140, 276–282.
Castanheira, Carlos. 2008. Álvaro Siza Vieira: l’architetto che voleva essere scultore. Galatina: Editrice Salentina
Colonnese, Fabio. 2016. “Human Figure as a Cultural Mediator in Architectural Drawings.” In Cultural Influences on Architecture, edited by Gülşah Koç Yıldız, Marie-Therese Claes, and Bryan Christiansen, 90-129. Hershey, PA: IGI Global
Croset, Pierre-Alain. 1999. Álvaro Siza. Scultura Architettura. Ginevra-Milano: Skira
Cunha Matos, Madalena. (1998). “Analysis of a Project. The Setubal College of Education.” In Alvaro Siza, 1986-1995, edited by Luiz Trigueiros et al., 11-16. Lisboa: Editorial Blau; Logos
Curtis, William J. R. 2000. “Notes on invention.” El Croquis 95: 22–31
Di Napoli, Giuseppe. 2004. Disegnare e conoscere. La mano, l’occhio, il segno. Torino: Einaudi
Drake, Scott. 2000. “Anatomy and Anthropomorphism: Architecture and the Origins of Science.” Edinburgh Architecture Research 27: 17–36
Eco, Umberto. 1995. The Role of the Reader. Explorations in the Semiotics of Texts. Bloomington: Indiana University Press
Fleischer, Richard, director. Fantastic Voyage, USA: 1966
Forty, Adrian. 2004. Parole e edifici. Un vocabolario per l’architettura moderna. Bologna: Pendragon
Frampton, Kenneth. 1985. Modern Architecture. A Critical History. London: Thames and Hudson.
Frampton, Kenneth. 1986. Álvaro Siza. Professione poetica. Milano: Electa
Frampton, Kenneth. 1991. “Sketching. Álvaro Siza’s Notes.” Lotus 68: 72–87
Frampton, Kenneth. 2006. Álvaro Siza. Tutte le opere. Milano: Electa
Frascari, Marco. 1991. Monsters of architecture. Anthropomorphism in Architectural Theory. USA: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers
Freedberg, David, and Vittorio Gallese. “Motion, emotion and empathy in esthetic experience.” Trends in Cognitive Sciences 11, no. 5: 197–203. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2007.02.003
Gazzaniga, Luca, and Eduardo Souto De Moura. 1994. “Alvaro Siza. Un laboratorio di mobili, 1987-1994.” Domus 759: 51–69
Hatch, John G. 2010. “Some Adaptations of Relativity in the 1920s and the Birth of Abstract Architecture.” Nexus Network Journal 12, no. 1: 131–147. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00004-010-0024-6
Jenks, Charles. 1977. The Language of Post-Modern Architecture.New York: Rizzoli
Kanizsa, Gaetano. 1955. “Margini quasi-percettivi in campi con stimolazione omogenea.” Rivista di Psicologia 49: 7–30
Lammers, Harm. 2012. Potentially…: Unravelling and reconnecting Aldo van Eyck in search of an approach for tomorrow. Master diss., Eindhoven University of Technology
Levit, Robert A. 2006. “Language, sites and types: a consideration of the work of Alvaro Siza.” In Narrating Architecture: A Retrospective Anthology, edited by James Madge, and Andrew Peckham, 3–28. New York, NY: Routledge.
Markus, Thomas A., and Deborah Cameron. 2001. The Words Between the Spaces: Buildings and Language. London: Routledge
Martins, Detlef. 1996. “The shells of architectural thought.” In Hejduk’s Chronotope, edited by K. Michael Hays, 23–52. New York: Princeton Architectural Press; Canadian Centre for Architecture.
Morteo, Enrico, and Álvaro Siza. 1993. “Il progetto come esperienza.” Domus 746: 17–28
Moschini, Francesco, and Lorenzo Pietropaolo 2016. “Álvaro Siza e l’Italia: la perturbante modernità del classico.” In Alvaro Siza in Italia: Il Grand Tour, 1976-2016, edited by Roberto Cremascoli, and Francesco Moschini, 14–32. Roma: Accademia Nazionale di San Luca
Payne, Alina. 2002. “Reclining Bodies: Figural Ornament in Renaissance Architecture.” In Body and Building. Essays on the changing relation, edited by G. Dodds, and R. Tavernor, 94–113. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
Santos, Juan Domingo. 2008. “The Meaning of Things. A Conversation with Alvaro Siza.” Croquis 140: 7–59
Sexton, Kim. 2017. Architecture and the Body, Science and Culture. London: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315642055
Siza, Álvaro, and Pierre-Alain Croset. 1986. “Álvaro Siza. Condensare la complessità. Conversazione con Pierre-Alain Croset.” Casabella 526: 9–15
Siza, Álvaro. 1995. “Frammenti di un’esperienza. Conversazioni con Carlos Castanheira, Pedro de Llano, Francisco Rei e Santiago Saera.” In Álvaro Siza. Opere e progetti, edited by Pedro de Llano, and Carlos Castanheira, 18–22. Milano: Electa
Siza, Álvaro. 1998. Immaginare l’evidenza. Bari-Roma: Gius. Laterza e Figli
Souto De Moura, Eduardo. 2003. “Vocazione Animale.” In Eduardo Souto de Moura, edited by Antonio Esposito, and Giovanni Leoni, 60–61. Milano: Electa
Souto de Moura, Eduardo. 2010. House in Mallorca. Álvaro Siza. [La Coruña]: Labirinto de Paixons
Tafuri, Manfredo. 1968. Teorie e storia dell’architettura. Bari-Roma: Laterza
Teige, Karel. 1998. “Mundaneum.” In Oppositions Reader: Selected Essays 1973-1984, edited by K. Michael Hays, 585–588. New York: Princeton Architectural Press
Testa, Peter. 1987. “Tradition and Actuality in the Antonio Carlos Siza House.” Journal of Architectural Education 40, no. 4: 24–30. https://doi.org/10.1080/10464883.1987.11102658
Vidler, Anthony. 1991. “John Hejduk: Vagabond Architecture. Reveries of a Journeyman Architect.” Lotus 68: 89–102
Wagner, Kirsten, and Jonathan Blower. 2015. “Animating Architecture: Empathy and Architectonic Space.” Art in Translation 6, no. 4, 399–435. https://doi.org/10.1080/17561310.2014.11425537
Wang, Wilfried, and Brigitte Fleck. 1988. Alvaro Siza. Esquissos de Viagem / Travel Sketches. Oporto: Documentos de Arquitectura
Wang, Wilfried. 1988. “The new Faculty of Architecture in Porto.” Casabella 547: 4–15
Wenders, Wim. 1992. L’atto di vedere. The Act of Seeing: Essays and Conversations. Milano: Ubulibri
Wölfflin, Heinrich. 1994. “Prolegomena to a Psychology of Architecture.” In Empathy, Form and Space: Problems in German Aesthetics, 1873–1893, edited by Harry Francis Mallgrave, 149–190. Santa Monica, CA: Getty Centre for the History of Art and the Humanities; University of Chicago Press
Zöllner, Frank. 2014. “Anthropomorphism: From Vitruvius to Neufert, from Human Measurement to the Module of Fascism.” In Images of the Body in Architecture: Anthropology and Built Space, edited by Kurt Wagner, and Jesper Cepl, 47–75. Tubingen, Berlin: Ernst Wasmuth