Main Article Content
In this paper, we develop a novel method for integrating system thinking into architectural design by mapping its processes in a standard process modeling language. We structured a decision-support framework using process mapping workflows to incorporate sustainable building materials and resource-based design decisions into the architectural practice. We turned to other disciplines’ knowledgebases, such as Business Information Technology (BIT), to develop a workflow for the Design-Bid-Build project delivery method (DBB). Mapping both current and the proposed design processes, including their activities, workflow, and decision nodes, was critical in defining roles, flow of information, and subsequent decisions. In this study, we utilized a qualitative methodology to capture the required knowledge from industry experts in resource-based design and then integrated our findings into a set of process maps to support the materials decisions by the architectural project team. This study establishes a system of information exchange to support the growth of the newly emerging industry of reuse stores and vendors. Through numerous interviews and knowledge capturing sessions with industry experts from the building material reuse industry that acknowledged an absence of a "system of information exchange." It is through this study that an overall system of information exchange will connect the links between the reuse industry and the AEC industry. The primary outcome of this study is a structured process for design with resource reuse. This process will redefine the DBB traditional design process by introducing new procedures, define information exchange and identify key decisions within the proposed processes, define responsibilities and identify key stakeholders. The author conducted an extensive multi-year knowledge capturing process with constructive feedback from the industry experts.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal which is under a Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International license (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0).
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
AIA. 2007. Defining the Architect’s Basic Services. edited by American Insitute of Architects (AIA). AIA.org: AIA Knowledge Resources Staff.
Akinade, Olugbenga O., Lukumon O. Oyedele, Kamil Omoteso, Saheed O. Ajayi, Muhammad Bilal, Hakeem A. Owolabi, Hafiz A. Alaka, Lara Ayris, and John Henry Looney. 2017. “BIM-based deconstruction tool: Towards essential functionalities.” International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment 6 (1):260-271. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsbe.2017.01.002.
Ali, Ahmed K., and Ralph Badinelli. 2016. “Novel Integration of Sustainable and Construction Decisions into the Design Bid Build Project Delivery Method Using BPMN.” Procedia Engineering 145:164-171. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2016.04.038.
CIB. 2002. “Design for Deconstruction and Materials Reuse.” CIB Task Group 39 – Deconstruction Meeting, Karlsruhe, Germany, 9 April 2002.
CICRP. 2010. BIM Project Execution Planning Guide Computer Integrated Construction Research Program: Pennsylvania State University.
Falk, Robert H., and Brad Guy. 2007. Unbuilding : salvaging the architectural treasures of unwanted houses. Newtown, CT: Taunton.
Fettig, Tad, Elizabeth Westrate, Mark Decena, John Kenney, Brad Pitt, Kontentreal (Firm), and PBS Home Video. 2006. Design e p2 s the economies of being environmentally conscious. Alexandria, Va.: Distributed by PBS Home Video,. videorecording :.
Fletcher, S. L., O. Popovic, and R. J. Plank. 2002. “Designing for future reuse and recycling.” Steel in Sustainable Construction: Iisi World Conference 2002, Conference Proceedings:287-292
Friedman, Ken. 2003. “Theory Construction in Design Research: Criteria: Approaches, and Methods.” Design Studies 24 (6).
Hinte, Ed van, Césare Peeren, and Jan Jongert. 2007. Superuse: constructing new architecture by shortcutting material flows. Rotterdam: 010 Publishers.
Jones, J.C. 1992. Design Methods: John Wiley & Sons.
Kalay, Y.E. 1987. Computability of design: Wiley.
Knecht, Barbara. 2004. “Designing for Disassembly and Deconstruction.” Architectural Record.
Korber, Andrea. 2002. “Productecture: Design for Remanufacturing.” Masters, Harvard School of Design
Krygiel, Eddy, and Brad Nies. 2008. Green BIM: successful sustainable design with building information modeling, Sybex serious skills. Indianapolis, Ind.: Wiley Pub.
Lawson, B. 2006. How Designers Think: The Design Process Demystified: Elsevier/Architectural.
Linstone, H.A., and M. Turoff. 1975. The Delphi method: techniques and applications: Addison-Wesley Pub. Co., Advanced Book Program.
Lynch, Kevin, and Michael Southworth. 1990. Wasting away. San Francisco: Sierra Club Books.
Messner, John I. 2003. “An Architecture for Knowledge Management in the AEC Industry.” Construction Research Congress: Wind of Change: Integration and Innovation, Honolulu, HI.
Miller, William R. 2004. Definition of Design. In Environmental Systems Research Institute Redlands, California.
Morris, and Matthiessen. 2007. Cost of Green Revisited: Reexamining the fesability and cost impact of sustainble design in the light of increased market adoption. Davis Langdon.
Osmani, M. Glass, J. Price, A. D. F. 2008. “Architects’ perspectives on construction waste reduction by design.” Waste Management 28 (7):1147-1158. doi: Doi 10.1016/J.Wasman.2007.05.01.
Perdomo-Rivera, Jose Luis. 2004. “A Framework For A Decision Support Model For Supply Chain Management In The Construction Industry.” PhD, Environmental Design and Planning, Virginia Tech (etd-11082004-152347).
Plowright, Philip D. 2014. Revealing architectural design : methods, frameworks and tools. London ; New York: Routledge.
Reekie, R.F. 1972. Design in the built environment: Edward Arnold.
Rhem, Anthony J. 2006. UML for developing knowledge management systems. Boca Raton, FL: Auerbach.
Roberts, J. 2005. Redux: Designs That Reuse, Recycle, and Reveal: Gibbs Smith.
Saleh, Tarek M. 2009. “Building green via design for deconstruction and adaptive reuse.” MASTER OF SCIENCE IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Text (Electronic thesis) in PDF format, THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, University of Florida.
Snyder, James C. 1970. Introduction to Architecture. New York: McGraw-Hill Publication.
USGBC. 2003. Reference Package for new Construction & Major Renovation. In LEED-NC Version 2.1, edited by Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design.
Venturi, Robert, and Museum of Modern Art (New York N.Y.). 1966. Complexity and contradiction in architecture. With a introd. by Vincent Scully, Museum of Modern Art papers on architecture, 1. New York,: Museum of Modern Art; distributed by Doubleday, Garden City.
Wang, David, and Linda N. Groat. 2013. Architectural research methods / David Wang, Linda N. Groat. Second Edition ed. Hoboken: Wiley.
Woudenberg, Fred. 1991. “An evaluation of Delphi.” Technological Forecasting and Social Change 40 (2):131-150. doi: 10.1016/0040-1625(91)90002-w.